What is cyber bullying?
Cyber bullying (or bullying online) is any form of bullying that is carried out through the use of electronic media devices, such as computers, laptops, smartphones, tablets, and/or gaming consoles.
What makes online bullying different?
We know there is a strong link between online bullying and face to face bullying. Research has shown that 80% of victims of online bullying were also bullied face to face.
Bullying is far more wide spread now it is online – it’s not just your time in school. It affects your social life. Your social life is online. How many people like your status or your picture. Social pressures are just made worse.
There are some things that make online bullying different to ‘traditional’ bullying:
- 24-7 nature – the nature of online activity means you can be in contact at any time.
- There is the potential for a wider audience and bullying incidents can stay online, for example: a photo that you can’t remove
- Evidence – a lot of online bullying incidents allow those experiencing it to keep evidence – for example, take a screen shot – to show to school staff or police if needed.
- Potential to hide your identity – it is possible to hide your identity online which can make online bullying incidents very scary
- Degree of separation – people who cyberbully often don’t see the reaction of those experiencing it so it can sometimes be harder for them to see the impact of their actions
Prevalance of online bullying
There are many statistics relating to levels of online bullying. In the briefing in the Tools and Research section you will see our Focus On briefing which outlines current research on bullying including (please see briefing for references):
- 24% of children and young people will experience some form of online bullying
- 17% of children and young people will online bully others
- Name calling is the most common type of online bullying
In 2015, in partnership with YoungMinds, the Anti-Bullying Alliance raised awareness of the impact of bullying on mental health.
- They launched a new short guide for GPs on the subject of bullying in partnership with YoungMinds.
- They also published Focus on Bullying and Mental Health which looked at all the research relating to bullying and mental health
We know that bullying can have a detrimental impact on children and young people’s mental health. We also know that children and young people with mental health issues are more likely to be bullied..
What is mental health?
The importance of physical health to our everyday wellbeing is usually well known and readily identified by most people. Understanding how certain behaviours and experiences can have positive or negative influences on our physical health is learnt from a young age – for example children are often taught that smoking is bad for your health and can cause lung damage. In contrast, understanding that certain behaviours and experiences can have positive or negative influences on our ‘mental health’ is much less recognised and acknowledged. The phrase ‘mental health’ is often interpreted in a negative manner to refer to mental health problems or difficulties. It is important to recognise that ‘mental health’ can be both a negative and a positive state:
Mental health is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realises his or her potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to his or her community
Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence Practice
World Health Organisation (2005)
Just as our physical health fluctuates, and can be affected by various environmental or personal factors, so can our mental health. Like the causes of physical health problems, mental health difficulties can result from factors that include: genetics; brain damage or injury; substance abuse; and chemical imbalances. Unfortunately, society can be less understanding where mental ill health is concerned, and people can be less sympathetic and supportive when compared to physical health issues.
Key findings of our consultation with young people
- Bullying has a significant effect on children and young people’s mental health, emotional well-being and identity.
- Bullying which is not responded to effectively can cause children and young people to develop other coping strategies such as self-isolation or self-harm; and cause significant disruption to their ability to engage with school, learning and their wider relationships.
- Children and young people with mental health or emotional and behavioural difficulties need support for their mental health needs in school in a way that is non-stigmatising and involved collaboration between school staff and the young people themselves.
- Schools need to ensure that young people feel able to talk about bullying and how it affects their emotional well-being.
- Disruptive behaviour can be an expression of difficulties or distress, and schools need to be mindful of this.
- There needs to be recognition and support for the emotional needs of children and young people who are being bullied and who bully others.
- Do not underestimate the importance of effective listening when responding to reports of bullying.